The appellate court’s task is to determine whether or not the law was applied correctly in the trial court. It also decides on jurisdictional disputes between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. The federal judicial system originally comprised only trial courts of original jurisdiction and the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is the ultimate court, at the top of the Judicial system. The so-called Gemeinsamer Senat der Obersten Gerichtshöfe (Joint Senate of the Supreme Courts) is not a supreme court itself, but an ad-hoc body that is convened only when one high court intends to diverge from another high court's legal opinion. However, the federal systems are different from our state courts structure. The Court holds the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution. Additionally, the highest court in some jurisdictions is not named the "Supreme Court", for example, the High Court of Australia. A number of jurisdictions also maintain a separate constitutional court (first developed in the Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920), such as Austria, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Portugal, Russia, Spain and South Africa. In this assignment, the roles and functions of the law will be discussed and explained. On the other hand, in some places the court named the "Supreme Court" is not in fact the highest court; examples include the New York Supreme Court, the supreme courts of several Canadian provinces/territories, and the former Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales and Supreme Court of Judicature of Northern Ireland, which are all subordinate to higher courts of appeal. The Supreme Court shares its members and accommodation at the Middlesex Guildhall in London with the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council which hears final appeals from certain smaller Commonwealth realm countries, admiralty cases, and certain appeals from the ecclesiastical courts and statutory private jurisdictions, such as professional and academic bodies. According to the Constitution, appointments to the Supreme Court and to the lower federal courts are made by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, though presidents have rarely consulted the Senate before making a nomination. The Court system in America is one of the best court system in the world and each of the states inside the United States has its own unique system that they operate under. For administrative proceedings the highest court is the "Cour Administrative" (Administrative Court). In 1933, the federal Parliament abolished such appeals in criminal matters. Its rulings cannot be appealed. In the 18th century, when the Union was formed and the colonies became states, they kept their Common Law governments. Further, trial courts of general jurisdiction in New York are called the Supreme Court, and the intermediate appellate court is called the Supreme Court, Appellate Division. It was founded at the country's independence in 1945. Relatively few cases reach the court through its original jurisdiction, however; instead, the vast majority of the court’s business and nearly all of its most influential decisions derive from its appellate jurisdiction. Within the former British Empire, the highest court within a colony was often called the "Supreme Court", even though appeals could be made from that court to the United Kingdom's Privy Council (based in London). The Supreme Court was created by the Constitutional Convention of 1787 as the head of a federal court system, though it was not formally established until Congress passed the Judiciary Act in 1789. Presidential directives can be struck down by the Court for violating either the Constitution or statutory law. In addition, an agreement between Nauru and Australia in 1976 provides for appeals from the Supreme Court of Nauru to the High Court of Australia in both criminal and civil cases, with the notable exception of constitutional cases.. Societies use law to keep the peace, enforce standards of conduct, maintain order, facilitate planning, and promote social justice (Barnes, Dworkin, & Richards, 2011). Select decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Supreme-Court-of-the-United-States, United States Courts - About the Supreme Court, Official Site of the Supreme Court of the United States, United States Supreme Court - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), United States Supreme Court - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Only one justice has been impeached, Samuel Chase, who was acquitted in 1805. There are two kinds of courts within the United States; those courts are state and federal courts. Since a constitutional amendment of 2007, the French Constitution states that the High Court is composed of all members of both Houses of Parliament. Even as the body of Philippine laws remain mostly codified, the Philippine Civil Code expressly recognizes that decisions of the Supreme Court "form part of the law of the land", belonging to the same class as statutes. The Appellant in this case Mr. Rice plead guilty to one count of assault with the intent to kill and three counts of armed robbery and was sentence to 11 years in prison. The Supreme Court has the final say on matters of constitutional law, federal law or on matters of mixed federal and provincial competence. The federal systems consist of three courts. Hence the term “dual court system”. The judges are appointed by the Government. The court rulings take precedence over all lower Courts. The organization of the federal judicial system, including the size of the Supreme Court, is established by Congress. The executive branches of the United States government consist of the president, vice-president, and 15 cabinet level departments.
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